go decode 源码

  • 2022-07-15
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golang decode 代码

文件路径:/src/cmd/vendor/golang.org/x/arch/x86/x86asm/decode.go

// Copyright 2014 The Go Authors.  All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.

// Table-driven decoding of x86 instructions.

package x86asm

import (
	"encoding/binary"
	"errors"
	"fmt"
	"runtime"
)

// Set trace to true to cause the decoder to print the PC sequence
// of the executed instruction codes. This is typically only useful
// when you are running a test of a single input case.
const trace = false

// A decodeOp is a single instruction in the decoder bytecode program.
//
// The decodeOps correspond to consuming and conditionally branching
// on input bytes, consuming additional fields, and then interpreting
// consumed data as instruction arguments. The names of the xRead and xArg
// operations are taken from the Intel manual conventions, for example
// Volume 2, Section 3.1.1, page 487 of
// http://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/manuals/64-ia-32-architectures-software-developer-manual-325462.pdf
//
// The actual decoding program is generated by ../x86map.
//
// TODO(rsc): We may be able to merge various of the memory operands
// since we don't care about, say, the distinction between m80dec and m80bcd.
// Similarly, mm and mm1 have identical meaning, as do xmm and xmm1.

type decodeOp uint16

const (
	xFail  decodeOp = iota // invalid instruction (return)
	xMatch                 // completed match
	xJump                  // jump to pc

	xCondByte     // switch on instruction byte value
	xCondSlashR   // read and switch on instruction /r value
	xCondPrefix   // switch on presence of instruction prefix
	xCondIs64     // switch on 64-bit processor mode
	xCondDataSize // switch on operand size
	xCondAddrSize // switch on address size
	xCondIsMem    // switch on memory vs register argument

	xSetOp // set instruction opcode

	xReadSlashR // read /r
	xReadIb     // read ib
	xReadIw     // read iw
	xReadId     // read id
	xReadIo     // read io
	xReadCb     // read cb
	xReadCw     // read cw
	xReadCd     // read cd
	xReadCp     // read cp
	xReadCm     // read cm

	xArg1            // arg 1
	xArg3            // arg 3
	xArgAL           // arg AL
	xArgAX           // arg AX
	xArgCL           // arg CL
	xArgCR0dashCR7   // arg CR0-CR7
	xArgCS           // arg CS
	xArgDR0dashDR7   // arg DR0-DR7
	xArgDS           // arg DS
	xArgDX           // arg DX
	xArgEAX          // arg EAX
	xArgEDX          // arg EDX
	xArgES           // arg ES
	xArgFS           // arg FS
	xArgGS           // arg GS
	xArgImm16        // arg imm16
	xArgImm32        // arg imm32
	xArgImm64        // arg imm64
	xArgImm8         // arg imm8
	xArgImm8u        // arg imm8 but record as unsigned
	xArgImm16u       // arg imm8 but record as unsigned
	xArgM            // arg m
	xArgM128         // arg m128
	xArgM256         // arg m256
	xArgM1428byte    // arg m14/28byte
	xArgM16          // arg m16
	xArgM16and16     // arg m16&16
	xArgM16and32     // arg m16&32
	xArgM16and64     // arg m16&64
	xArgM16colon16   // arg m16:16
	xArgM16colon32   // arg m16:32
	xArgM16colon64   // arg m16:64
	xArgM16int       // arg m16int
	xArgM2byte       // arg m2byte
	xArgM32          // arg m32
	xArgM32and32     // arg m32&32
	xArgM32fp        // arg m32fp
	xArgM32int       // arg m32int
	xArgM512byte     // arg m512byte
	xArgM64          // arg m64
	xArgM64fp        // arg m64fp
	xArgM64int       // arg m64int
	xArgM8           // arg m8
	xArgM80bcd       // arg m80bcd
	xArgM80dec       // arg m80dec
	xArgM80fp        // arg m80fp
	xArgM94108byte   // arg m94/108byte
	xArgMm           // arg mm
	xArgMm1          // arg mm1
	xArgMm2          // arg mm2
	xArgMm2M64       // arg mm2/m64
	xArgMmM32        // arg mm/m32
	xArgMmM64        // arg mm/m64
	xArgMem          // arg mem
	xArgMoffs16      // arg moffs16
	xArgMoffs32      // arg moffs32
	xArgMoffs64      // arg moffs64
	xArgMoffs8       // arg moffs8
	xArgPtr16colon16 // arg ptr16:16
	xArgPtr16colon32 // arg ptr16:32
	xArgR16          // arg r16
	xArgR16op        // arg r16 with +rw in opcode
	xArgR32          // arg r32
	xArgR32M16       // arg r32/m16
	xArgR32M8        // arg r32/m8
	xArgR32op        // arg r32 with +rd in opcode
	xArgR64          // arg r64
	xArgR64M16       // arg r64/m16
	xArgR64op        // arg r64 with +rd in opcode
	xArgR8           // arg r8
	xArgR8op         // arg r8 with +rb in opcode
	xArgRAX          // arg RAX
	xArgRDX          // arg RDX
	xArgRM           // arg r/m
	xArgRM16         // arg r/m16
	xArgRM32         // arg r/m32
	xArgRM64         // arg r/m64
	xArgRM8          // arg r/m8
	xArgReg          // arg reg
	xArgRegM16       // arg reg/m16
	xArgRegM32       // arg reg/m32
	xArgRegM8        // arg reg/m8
	xArgRel16        // arg rel16
	xArgRel32        // arg rel32
	xArgRel8         // arg rel8
	xArgSS           // arg SS
	xArgST           // arg ST, aka ST(0)
	xArgSTi          // arg ST(i) with +i in opcode
	xArgSreg         // arg Sreg
	xArgTR0dashTR7   // arg TR0-TR7
	xArgXmm          // arg xmm
	xArgXMM0         // arg <XMM0>
	xArgXmm1         // arg xmm1
	xArgXmm2         // arg xmm2
	xArgXmm2M128     // arg xmm2/m128
	xArgYmm2M256     // arg ymm2/m256
	xArgXmm2M16      // arg xmm2/m16
	xArgXmm2M32      // arg xmm2/m32
	xArgXmm2M64      // arg xmm2/m64
	xArgXmmM128      // arg xmm/m128
	xArgXmmM32       // arg xmm/m32
	xArgXmmM64       // arg xmm/m64
	xArgYmm1         // arg ymm1
	xArgRmf16        // arg r/m16 but force mod=3
	xArgRmf32        // arg r/m32 but force mod=3
	xArgRmf64        // arg r/m64 but force mod=3
)

// instPrefix returns an Inst describing just one prefix byte.
// It is only used if there is a prefix followed by an unintelligible
// or invalid instruction byte sequence.
func instPrefix(b byte, mode int) (Inst, error) {
	// When tracing it is useful to see what called instPrefix to report an error.
	if trace {
		_, file, line, _ := runtime.Caller(1)
		fmt.Printf("%s:%d\n", file, line)
	}
	p := Prefix(b)
	switch p {
	case PrefixDataSize:
		if mode == 16 {
			p = PrefixData32
		} else {
			p = PrefixData16
		}
	case PrefixAddrSize:
		if mode == 32 {
			p = PrefixAddr16
		} else {
			p = PrefixAddr32
		}
	}
	// Note: using composite literal with Prefix key confuses 'bundle' tool.
	inst := Inst{Len: 1}
	inst.Prefix = Prefixes{p}
	return inst, nil
}

// truncated reports a truncated instruction.
// For now we use instPrefix but perhaps later we will return
// a specific error here.
func truncated(src []byte, mode int) (Inst, error) {
	if len(src) == 0 {
		return Inst{}, ErrTruncated
	}
	return instPrefix(src[0], mode) // too long
}

// These are the errors returned by Decode.
var (
	ErrInvalidMode  = errors.New("invalid x86 mode in Decode")
	ErrTruncated    = errors.New("truncated instruction")
	ErrUnrecognized = errors.New("unrecognized instruction")
)

// decoderCover records coverage information for which parts
// of the byte code have been executed.
var decoderCover []bool

// Decode decodes the leading bytes in src as a single instruction.
// The mode arguments specifies the assumed processor mode:
// 16, 32, or 64 for 16-, 32-, and 64-bit execution modes.
func Decode(src []byte, mode int) (inst Inst, err error) {
	return decode1(src, mode, false)
}

// decode1 is the implementation of Decode but takes an extra
// gnuCompat flag to cause it to change its behavior to mimic
// bugs (or at least unique features) of GNU libopcodes as used
// by objdump. We don't believe that logic is the right thing to do
// in general, but when testing against libopcodes it simplifies the
// comparison if we adjust a few small pieces of logic.
// The affected logic is in the conditional branch for "mandatory" prefixes,
// case xCondPrefix.
func decode1(src []byte, mode int, gnuCompat bool) (Inst, error) {
	switch mode {
	case 16, 32, 64:
		// ok
		// TODO(rsc): 64-bit mode not tested, probably not working.
	default:
		return Inst{}, ErrInvalidMode
	}

	// Maximum instruction size is 15 bytes.
	// If we need to read more, return 'truncated instruction.
	if len(src) > 15 {
		src = src[:15]
	}

	var (
		// prefix decoding information
		pos           = 0    // position reading src
		nprefix       = 0    // number of prefixes
		lockIndex     = -1   // index of LOCK prefix in src and inst.Prefix
		repIndex      = -1   // index of REP/REPN prefix in src and inst.Prefix
		segIndex      = -1   // index of Group 2 prefix in src and inst.Prefix
		dataSizeIndex = -1   // index of Group 3 prefix in src and inst.Prefix
		addrSizeIndex = -1   // index of Group 4 prefix in src and inst.Prefix
		rex           Prefix // rex byte if present (or 0)
		rexUsed       Prefix // bits used in rex byte
		rexIndex      = -1   // index of rex byte
		vex           Prefix // use vex encoding
		vexIndex      = -1   // index of vex prefix

		addrMode = mode // address mode (width in bits)
		dataMode = mode // operand mode (width in bits)

		// decoded ModR/M fields
		haveModrm bool
		modrm     int
		mod       int
		regop     int
		rm        int

		// if ModR/M is memory reference, Mem form
		mem     Mem
		haveMem bool

		// decoded SIB fields
		haveSIB bool
		sib     int
		scale   int
		index   int
		base    int
		displen int
		dispoff int

		// decoded immediate values
		imm     int64
		imm8    int8
		immc    int64
		immcpos int

		// output
		opshift int
		inst    Inst
		narg    int // number of arguments written to inst
	)

	if mode == 64 {
		dataMode = 32
	}

	// Prefixes are certainly the most complex and underspecified part of
	// decoding x86 instructions. Although the manuals say things like
	// up to four prefixes, one from each group, nearly everyone seems to
	// agree that in practice as many prefixes as possible, including multiple
	// from a particular group or repetitions of a given prefix, can be used on
	// an instruction, provided the total instruction length including prefixes
	// does not exceed the agreed-upon maximum of 15 bytes.
	// Everyone also agrees that if one of these prefixes is the LOCK prefix
	// and the instruction is not one of the instructions that can be used with
	// the LOCK prefix or if the destination is not a memory operand,
	// then the instruction is invalid and produces the #UD exception.
	// However, that is the end of any semblance of agreement.
	//
	// What happens if prefixes are given that conflict with other prefixes?
	// For example, the memory segment overrides CS, DS, ES, FS, GS, SS
	// conflict with each other: only one segment can be in effect.
	// Disassemblers seem to agree that later prefixes take priority over
	// earlier ones. I have not taken the time to write assembly programs
	// to check to see if the hardware agrees.
	//
	// What happens if prefixes are given that have no meaning for the
	// specific instruction to which they are attached? It depends.
	// If they really have no meaning, they are ignored. However, a future
	// processor may assign a different meaning. As a disassembler, we
	// don't really know whether we're seeing a meaningless prefix or one
	// whose meaning we simply haven't been told yet.
	//
	// Combining the two questions, what happens when conflicting
	// extension prefixes are given? No one seems to know for sure.
	// For example, MOVQ is 66 0F D6 /r, MOVDQ2Q is F2 0F D6 /r,
	// and MOVQ2DQ is F3 0F D6 /r. What is '66 F2 F3 0F D6 /r'?
	// Which prefix wins? See the xCondPrefix prefix for more.
	//
	// Writing assembly test cases to divine which interpretation the
	// CPU uses might clarify the situation, but more likely it would
	// make the situation even less clear.

	// Read non-REX prefixes.
ReadPrefixes:
	for ; pos < len(src); pos++ {
		p := Prefix(src[pos])
		switch p {
		default:
			nprefix = pos
			break ReadPrefixes

		// Group 1 - lock and repeat prefixes
		// According to Intel, there should only be one from this set,
		// but according to AMD both can be present.
		case 0xF0:
			if lockIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[lockIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
			lockIndex = pos
		case 0xF2, 0xF3:
			if repIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[repIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
			repIndex = pos

		// Group 2 - segment override / branch hints
		case 0x26, 0x2E, 0x36, 0x3E:
			if mode == 64 {
				p |= PrefixIgnored
				break
			}
			fallthrough
		case 0x64, 0x65:
			if segIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[segIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
			segIndex = pos

		// Group 3 - operand size override
		case 0x66:
			if mode == 16 {
				dataMode = 32
				p = PrefixData32
			} else {
				dataMode = 16
				p = PrefixData16
			}
			if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
			dataSizeIndex = pos

		// Group 4 - address size override
		case 0x67:
			if mode == 32 {
				addrMode = 16
				p = PrefixAddr16
			} else {
				addrMode = 32
				p = PrefixAddr32
			}
			if addrSizeIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[addrSizeIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
			addrSizeIndex = pos

		//Group 5 - Vex encoding
		case 0xC5:
			if pos == 0 && pos+1 < len(src) && (mode == 64 || (mode == 32 && src[pos+1]&0xc0 == 0xc0)) {
				vex = p
				vexIndex = pos
				inst.Prefix[pos] = p
				inst.Prefix[pos+1] = Prefix(src[pos+1])
				pos += 1
				continue
			} else {
				nprefix = pos
				break ReadPrefixes
			}
		case 0xC4:
			if pos == 0 && pos+2 < len(src) && (mode == 64 || (mode == 32 && src[pos+1]&0xc0 == 0xc0)) {
				vex = p
				vexIndex = pos
				inst.Prefix[pos] = p
				inst.Prefix[pos+1] = Prefix(src[pos+1])
				inst.Prefix[pos+2] = Prefix(src[pos+2])
				pos += 2
				continue
			} else {
				nprefix = pos
				break ReadPrefixes
			}
		}

		if pos >= len(inst.Prefix) {
			return instPrefix(src[0], mode) // too long
		}

		inst.Prefix[pos] = p
	}

	// Read REX prefix.
	if pos < len(src) && mode == 64 && Prefix(src[pos]).IsREX() && vex == 0 {
		rex = Prefix(src[pos])
		rexIndex = pos
		if pos >= len(inst.Prefix) {
			return instPrefix(src[0], mode) // too long
		}
		inst.Prefix[pos] = rex
		pos++
		if rex&PrefixREXW != 0 {
			dataMode = 64
			if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
		}
	}

	// Decode instruction stream, interpreting decoding instructions.
	// opshift gives the shift to use when saving the next
	// opcode byte into inst.Opcode.
	opshift = 24

	// Decode loop, executing decoder program.
	var oldPC, prevPC int
Decode:
	for pc := 1; ; { // TODO uint
		oldPC = prevPC
		prevPC = pc
		if trace {
			println("run", pc)
		}
		x := decoder[pc]
		if decoderCover != nil {
			decoderCover[pc] = true
		}
		pc++

		// Read and decode ModR/M if needed by opcode.
		switch decodeOp(x) {
		case xCondSlashR, xReadSlashR:
			if haveModrm {
				return Inst{Len: pos}, errInternal
			}
			haveModrm = true
			if pos >= len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			modrm = int(src[pos])
			pos++
			if opshift >= 0 {
				inst.Opcode |= uint32(modrm) << uint(opshift)
				opshift -= 8
			}
			mod = modrm >> 6
			regop = (modrm >> 3) & 07
			rm = modrm & 07
			if rex&PrefixREXR != 0 {
				rexUsed |= PrefixREXR
				regop |= 8
			}
			if addrMode == 16 {
				// 16-bit modrm form
				if mod != 3 {
					haveMem = true
					mem = addr16[rm]
					if rm == 6 && mod == 0 {
						mem.Base = 0
					}

					// Consume disp16 if present.
					if mod == 0 && rm == 6 || mod == 2 {
						if pos+2 > len(src) {
							return truncated(src, mode)
						}
						mem.Disp = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint16(src[pos:]))
						pos += 2
					}

					// Consume disp8 if present.
					if mod == 1 {
						if pos >= len(src) {
							return truncated(src, mode)
						}
						mem.Disp = int64(int8(src[pos]))
						pos++
					}
				}
			} else {
				haveMem = mod != 3

				// 32-bit or 64-bit form
				// Consume SIB encoding if present.
				if rm == 4 && mod != 3 {
					haveSIB = true
					if pos >= len(src) {
						return truncated(src, mode)
					}
					sib = int(src[pos])
					pos++
					if opshift >= 0 {
						inst.Opcode |= uint32(sib) << uint(opshift)
						opshift -= 8
					}
					scale = sib >> 6
					index = (sib >> 3) & 07
					base = sib & 07
					if rex&PrefixREXB != 0 || vex == 0xC4 && inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]&0x20 == 0 {
						rexUsed |= PrefixREXB
						base |= 8
					}
					if rex&PrefixREXX != 0 || vex == 0xC4 && inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]&0x40 == 0 {
						rexUsed |= PrefixREXX
						index |= 8
					}

					mem.Scale = 1 << uint(scale)
					if index == 4 {
						// no mem.Index
					} else {
						mem.Index = baseRegForBits(addrMode) + Reg(index)
					}
					if base&7 == 5 && mod == 0 {
						// no mem.Base
					} else {
						mem.Base = baseRegForBits(addrMode) + Reg(base)
					}
				} else {
					if rex&PrefixREXB != 0 {
						rexUsed |= PrefixREXB
						rm |= 8
					}
					if mod == 0 && rm&7 == 5 || rm&7 == 4 {
						// base omitted
					} else if mod != 3 {
						mem.Base = baseRegForBits(addrMode) + Reg(rm)
					}
				}

				// Consume disp32 if present.
				if mod == 0 && (rm&7 == 5 || haveSIB && base&7 == 5) || mod == 2 {
					if pos+4 > len(src) {
						return truncated(src, mode)
					}
					dispoff = pos
					displen = 4
					mem.Disp = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint32(src[pos:]))
					pos += 4
				}

				// Consume disp8 if present.
				if mod == 1 {
					if pos >= len(src) {
						return truncated(src, mode)
					}
					dispoff = pos
					displen = 1
					mem.Disp = int64(int8(src[pos]))
					pos++
				}

				// In 64-bit, mod=0 rm=5 is PC-relative instead of just disp.
				// See Vol 2A. Table 2-7.
				if mode == 64 && mod == 0 && rm&7 == 5 {
					if addrMode == 32 {
						mem.Base = EIP
					} else {
						mem.Base = RIP
					}
				}
			}

			if segIndex >= 0 {
				mem.Segment = prefixToSegment(inst.Prefix[segIndex])
			}
		}

		// Execute single opcode.
		switch decodeOp(x) {
		default:
			println("bad op", x, "at", pc-1, "from", oldPC)
			return Inst{Len: pos}, errInternal

		case xFail:
			inst.Op = 0
			break Decode

		case xMatch:
			break Decode

		case xJump:
			pc = int(decoder[pc])

		// Conditional branches.

		case xCondByte:
			if pos >= len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			b := src[pos]
			n := int(decoder[pc])
			pc++
			for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
				xb, xpc := decoder[pc], int(decoder[pc+1])
				pc += 2
				if b == byte(xb) {
					pc = xpc
					pos++
					if opshift >= 0 {
						inst.Opcode |= uint32(b) << uint(opshift)
						opshift -= 8
					}
					continue Decode
				}
			}
			// xCondByte is the only conditional with a fall through,
			// so that it can be used to pick off special cases before
			// an xCondSlash. If the fallthrough instruction is xFail,
			// advance the position so that the decoded instruction
			// size includes the byte we just compared against.
			if decodeOp(decoder[pc]) == xJump {
				pc = int(decoder[pc+1])
			}
			if decodeOp(decoder[pc]) == xFail {
				pos++
			}

		case xCondIs64:
			if mode == 64 {
				pc = int(decoder[pc+1])
			} else {
				pc = int(decoder[pc])
			}

		case xCondIsMem:
			mem := haveMem
			if !haveModrm {
				if pos >= len(src) {
					return instPrefix(src[0], mode) // too long
				}
				mem = src[pos]>>6 != 3
			}
			if mem {
				pc = int(decoder[pc+1])
			} else {
				pc = int(decoder[pc])
			}

		case xCondDataSize:
			switch dataMode {
			case 16:
				if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
					inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
				}
				pc = int(decoder[pc])
			case 32:
				if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
					inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
				}
				pc = int(decoder[pc+1])
			case 64:
				rexUsed |= PrefixREXW
				pc = int(decoder[pc+2])
			}

		case xCondAddrSize:
			switch addrMode {
			case 16:
				if addrSizeIndex >= 0 {
					inst.Prefix[addrSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
				}
				pc = int(decoder[pc])
			case 32:
				if addrSizeIndex >= 0 {
					inst.Prefix[addrSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
				}
				pc = int(decoder[pc+1])
			case 64:
				pc = int(decoder[pc+2])
			}

		case xCondPrefix:
			// Conditional branch based on presence or absence of prefixes.
			// The conflict cases here are completely undocumented and
			// differ significantly between GNU libopcodes and Intel xed.
			// I have not written assembly code to divine what various CPUs
			// do, but it wouldn't surprise me if they are not consistent either.
			//
			// The basic idea is to switch on the presence of a prefix, so that
			// for example:
			//
			//	xCondPrefix, 4
			//	0xF3, 123,
			//	0xF2, 234,
			//	0x66, 345,
			//	0, 456
			//
			// branch to 123 if the F3 prefix is present, 234 if the F2 prefix
			// is present, 66 if the 345 prefix is present, and 456 otherwise.
			// The prefixes are given in descending order so that the 0 will be last.
			//
			// It is unclear what should happen if multiple conditions are
			// satisfied: what if F2 and F3 are both present, or if 66 and F2
			// are present, or if all three are present? The one chosen becomes
			// part of the opcode and the others do not. Perhaps the answer
			// depends on the specific opcodes in question.
			//
			// The only clear example is that CRC32 is F2 0F 38 F1 /r, and
			// it comes in 16-bit and 32-bit forms based on the 66 prefix,
			// so 66 F2 0F 38 F1 /r should be treated as F2 taking priority,
			// with the 66 being only an operand size override, and probably
			// F2 66 0F 38 F1 /r should be treated the same.
			// Perhaps that rule is specific to the case of CRC32, since no
			// 66 0F 38 F1 instruction is defined (today) (that we know of).
			// However, both libopcodes and xed seem to generalize this
			// example and choose F2/F3 in preference to 66, and we
			// do the same.
			//
			// Next, what if both F2 and F3 are present? Which wins?
			// The Intel xed rule, and ours, is that the one that occurs last wins.
			// The GNU libopcodes rule, which we implement only in gnuCompat mode,
			// is that F3 beats F2 unless F3 has no special meaning, in which
			// case F3 can be a modified on an F2 special meaning.
			//
			// Concretely,
			//	66 0F D6 /r is MOVQ
			//	F2 0F D6 /r is MOVDQ2Q
			//	F3 0F D6 /r is MOVQ2DQ.
			//
			//	F2 66 0F D6 /r is 66 + MOVDQ2Q always.
			//	66 F2 0F D6 /r is 66 + MOVDQ2Q always.
			//	F3 66 0F D6 /r is 66 + MOVQ2DQ always.
			//	66 F3 0F D6 /r is 66 + MOVQ2DQ always.
			//	F2 F3 0F D6 /r is F2 + MOVQ2DQ always.
			//	F3 F2 0F D6 /r is F3 + MOVQ2DQ in Intel xed, but F2 + MOVQ2DQ in GNU libopcodes.
			//	Adding 66 anywhere in the prefix section of the
			//	last two cases does not change the outcome.
			//
			// Finally, what if there is a variant in which 66 is a mandatory
			// prefix rather than an operand size override, but we know of
			// no corresponding F2/F3 form, and we see both F2/F3 and 66.
			// Does F2/F3 still take priority, so that the result is an unknown
			// instruction, or does the 66 take priority, so that the extended
			// 66 instruction should be interpreted as having a REP/REPN prefix?
			// Intel xed does the former and GNU libopcodes does the latter.
			// We side with Intel xed, unless we are trying to match libopcodes
			// more closely during the comparison-based test suite.
			//
			// In 64-bit mode REX.W is another valid prefix to test for, but
			// there is less ambiguity about that. When present, REX.W is
			// always the first entry in the table.
			n := int(decoder[pc])
			pc++
			sawF3 := false
			for j := 0; j < n; j++ {
				prefix := Prefix(decoder[pc+2*j])
				if prefix.IsREX() {
					rexUsed |= prefix
					if rex&prefix == prefix {
						pc = int(decoder[pc+2*j+1])
						continue Decode
					}
					continue
				}
				ok := false
				if prefix == 0 {
					ok = true
				} else if prefix.IsREX() {
					rexUsed |= prefix
					if rex&prefix == prefix {
						ok = true
					}
				} else if prefix == 0xC5 || prefix == 0xC4 {
					if vex == prefix {
						ok = true
					}
				} else if vex != 0 && (prefix == 0x0F || prefix == 0x0F38 || prefix == 0x0F3A ||
					prefix == 0x66 || prefix == 0xF2 || prefix == 0xF3) {
					var vexM, vexP Prefix
					if vex == 0xC5 {
						vexM = 1 // 2 byte vex always implies 0F
						vexP = inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]
					} else {
						vexM = inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]
						vexP = inst.Prefix[vexIndex+2]
					}
					switch prefix {
					case 0x66:
						ok = vexP&3 == 1
					case 0xF3:
						ok = vexP&3 == 2
					case 0xF2:
						ok = vexP&3 == 3
					case 0x0F:
						ok = vexM&3 == 1
					case 0x0F38:
						ok = vexM&3 == 2
					case 0x0F3A:
						ok = vexM&3 == 3
					}
				} else {
					if prefix == 0xF3 {
						sawF3 = true
					}
					switch prefix {
					case PrefixLOCK:
						if lockIndex >= 0 {
							inst.Prefix[lockIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
							ok = true
						}
					case PrefixREP, PrefixREPN:
						if repIndex >= 0 && inst.Prefix[repIndex]&0xFF == prefix {
							inst.Prefix[repIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
							ok = true
						}
						if gnuCompat && !ok && prefix == 0xF3 && repIndex >= 0 && (j+1 >= n || decoder[pc+2*(j+1)] != 0xF2) {
							// Check to see if earlier prefix F3 is present.
							for i := repIndex - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
								if inst.Prefix[i]&0xFF == prefix {
									inst.Prefix[i] |= PrefixImplicit
									ok = true
								}
							}
						}
						if gnuCompat && !ok && prefix == 0xF2 && repIndex >= 0 && !sawF3 && inst.Prefix[repIndex]&0xFF == 0xF3 {
							// Check to see if earlier prefix F2 is present.
							for i := repIndex - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
								if inst.Prefix[i]&0xFF == prefix {
									inst.Prefix[i] |= PrefixImplicit
									ok = true
								}
							}
						}
					case PrefixCS, PrefixDS, PrefixES, PrefixFS, PrefixGS, PrefixSS:
						if segIndex >= 0 && inst.Prefix[segIndex]&0xFF == prefix {
							inst.Prefix[segIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
							ok = true
						}
					case PrefixDataSize:
						// Looking for 66 mandatory prefix.
						// The F2/F3 mandatory prefixes take priority when both are present.
						// If we got this far in the xCondPrefix table and an F2/F3 is present,
						// it means the table didn't have any entry for that prefix. But if 66 has
						// special meaning, perhaps F2/F3 have special meaning that we don't know.
						// Intel xed works this way, treating the F2/F3 as inhibiting the 66.
						// GNU libopcodes allows the 66 to match. We do what Intel xed does
						// except in gnuCompat mode.
						if repIndex >= 0 && !gnuCompat {
							inst.Op = 0
							break Decode
						}
						if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
							inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
							ok = true
						}
					case PrefixAddrSize:
						if addrSizeIndex >= 0 {
							inst.Prefix[addrSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
							ok = true
						}
					}
				}
				if ok {
					pc = int(decoder[pc+2*j+1])
					continue Decode
				}
			}
			inst.Op = 0
			break Decode

		case xCondSlashR:
			pc = int(decoder[pc+regop&7])

		// Input.

		case xReadSlashR:
			// done above

		case xReadIb:
			if pos >= len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			imm8 = int8(src[pos])
			pos++

		case xReadIw:
			if pos+2 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			imm = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint16(src[pos:]))
			pos += 2

		case xReadId:
			if pos+4 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			imm = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint32(src[pos:]))
			pos += 4

		case xReadIo:
			if pos+8 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			imm = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint64(src[pos:]))
			pos += 8

		case xReadCb:
			if pos >= len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			immcpos = pos
			immc = int64(src[pos])
			pos++

		case xReadCw:
			if pos+2 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			immcpos = pos
			immc = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint16(src[pos:]))
			pos += 2

		case xReadCm:
			immcpos = pos
			if addrMode == 16 {
				if pos+2 > len(src) {
					return truncated(src, mode)
				}
				immc = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint16(src[pos:]))
				pos += 2
			} else if addrMode == 32 {
				if pos+4 > len(src) {
					return truncated(src, mode)
				}
				immc = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint32(src[pos:]))
				pos += 4
			} else {
				if pos+8 > len(src) {
					return truncated(src, mode)
				}
				immc = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint64(src[pos:]))
				pos += 8
			}
		case xReadCd:
			immcpos = pos
			if pos+4 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			immc = int64(binary.LittleEndian.Uint32(src[pos:]))
			pos += 4

		case xReadCp:
			immcpos = pos
			if pos+6 > len(src) {
				return truncated(src, mode)
			}
			w := binary.LittleEndian.Uint32(src[pos:])
			w2 := binary.LittleEndian.Uint16(src[pos+4:])
			immc = int64(w2)<<32 | int64(w)
			pos += 6

		// Output.

		case xSetOp:
			inst.Op = Op(decoder[pc])
			pc++

		case xArg1,
			xArg3,
			xArgAL,
			xArgAX,
			xArgCL,
			xArgCS,
			xArgDS,
			xArgDX,
			xArgEAX,
			xArgEDX,
			xArgES,
			xArgFS,
			xArgGS,
			xArgRAX,
			xArgRDX,
			xArgSS,
			xArgST,
			xArgXMM0:
			inst.Args[narg] = fixedArg[x]
			narg++

		case xArgImm8:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(imm8)
			narg++

		case xArgImm8u:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(uint8(imm8))
			narg++

		case xArgImm16:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(int16(imm))
			narg++

		case xArgImm16u:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(uint16(imm))
			narg++

		case xArgImm32:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(int32(imm))
			narg++

		case xArgImm64:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(imm)
			narg++

		case xArgM,
			xArgM128,
			xArgM256,
			xArgM1428byte,
			xArgM16,
			xArgM16and16,
			xArgM16and32,
			xArgM16and64,
			xArgM16colon16,
			xArgM16colon32,
			xArgM16colon64,
			xArgM16int,
			xArgM2byte,
			xArgM32,
			xArgM32and32,
			xArgM32fp,
			xArgM32int,
			xArgM512byte,
			xArgM64,
			xArgM64fp,
			xArgM64int,
			xArgM8,
			xArgM80bcd,
			xArgM80dec,
			xArgM80fp,
			xArgM94108byte,
			xArgMem:
			if !haveMem {
				inst.Op = 0
				break Decode
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = mem
			inst.MemBytes = int(memBytes[decodeOp(x)])
			if mem.Base == RIP {
				inst.PCRel = displen
				inst.PCRelOff = dispoff
			}
			narg++

		case xArgPtr16colon16:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(immc >> 16)
			inst.Args[narg+1] = Imm(immc & (1<<16 - 1))
			narg += 2

		case xArgPtr16colon32:
			inst.Args[narg] = Imm(immc >> 32)
			inst.Args[narg+1] = Imm(immc & (1<<32 - 1))
			narg += 2

		case xArgMoffs8, xArgMoffs16, xArgMoffs32, xArgMoffs64:
			// TODO(rsc): Can address be 64 bits?
			mem = Mem{Disp: int64(immc)}
			if segIndex >= 0 {
				mem.Segment = prefixToSegment(inst.Prefix[segIndex])
				inst.Prefix[segIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = mem
			inst.MemBytes = int(memBytes[decodeOp(x)])
			if mem.Base == RIP {
				inst.PCRel = displen
				inst.PCRelOff = dispoff
			}
			narg++

		case xArgYmm1:
			base := baseReg[x]
			index := Reg(regop)
			if inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]&0x80 == 0 {
				index += 8
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = base + index
			narg++

		case xArgR8, xArgR16, xArgR32, xArgR64, xArgXmm, xArgXmm1, xArgDR0dashDR7:
			base := baseReg[x]
			index := Reg(regop)
			if rex != 0 && base == AL && index >= 4 {
				rexUsed |= PrefixREX
				index -= 4
				base = SPB
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = base + index
			narg++

		case xArgMm, xArgMm1, xArgTR0dashTR7:
			inst.Args[narg] = baseReg[x] + Reg(regop&7)
			narg++

		case xArgCR0dashCR7:
			// AMD documents an extension that the LOCK prefix
			// can be used in place of a REX prefix in order to access
			// CR8 from 32-bit mode. The LOCK prefix is allowed in
			// all modes, provided the corresponding CPUID bit is set.
			if lockIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[lockIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
				regop += 8
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = CR0 + Reg(regop)
			narg++

		case xArgSreg:
			regop &= 7
			if regop >= 6 {
				inst.Op = 0
				break Decode
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = ES + Reg(regop)
			narg++

		case xArgRmf16, xArgRmf32, xArgRmf64:
			base := baseReg[x]
			index := Reg(modrm & 07)
			if rex&PrefixREXB != 0 {
				rexUsed |= PrefixREXB
				index += 8
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = base + index
			narg++

		case xArgR8op, xArgR16op, xArgR32op, xArgR64op, xArgSTi:
			n := inst.Opcode >> uint(opshift+8) & 07
			base := baseReg[x]
			index := Reg(n)
			if rex&PrefixREXB != 0 && decodeOp(x) != xArgSTi {
				rexUsed |= PrefixREXB
				index += 8
			}
			if rex != 0 && base == AL && index >= 4 {
				rexUsed |= PrefixREX
				index -= 4
				base = SPB
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = base + index
			narg++
		case xArgRM8, xArgRM16, xArgRM32, xArgRM64, xArgR32M16, xArgR32M8, xArgR64M16,
			xArgMmM32, xArgMmM64, xArgMm2M64,
			xArgXmm2M16, xArgXmm2M32, xArgXmm2M64, xArgXmmM64, xArgXmmM128, xArgXmmM32, xArgXmm2M128,
			xArgYmm2M256:
			if haveMem {
				inst.Args[narg] = mem
				inst.MemBytes = int(memBytes[decodeOp(x)])
				if mem.Base == RIP {
					inst.PCRel = displen
					inst.PCRelOff = dispoff
				}
			} else {
				base := baseReg[x]
				index := Reg(rm)
				switch decodeOp(x) {
				case xArgMmM32, xArgMmM64, xArgMm2M64:
					// There are only 8 MMX registers, so these ignore the REX.X bit.
					index &= 7
				case xArgRM8:
					if rex != 0 && index >= 4 {
						rexUsed |= PrefixREX
						index -= 4
						base = SPB
					}
				case xArgYmm2M256:
					if vex == 0xC4 && inst.Prefix[vexIndex+1]&0x40 == 0x40 {
						index += 8
					}
				}
				inst.Args[narg] = base + index
			}
			narg++

		case xArgMm2: // register only; TODO(rsc): Handle with tag modrm_regonly tag
			if haveMem {
				inst.Op = 0
				break Decode
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = baseReg[x] + Reg(rm&7)
			narg++

		case xArgXmm2: // register only; TODO(rsc): Handle with tag modrm_regonly tag
			if haveMem {
				inst.Op = 0
				break Decode
			}
			inst.Args[narg] = baseReg[x] + Reg(rm)
			narg++

		case xArgRel8:
			inst.PCRelOff = immcpos
			inst.PCRel = 1
			inst.Args[narg] = Rel(int8(immc))
			narg++

		case xArgRel16:
			inst.PCRelOff = immcpos
			inst.PCRel = 2
			inst.Args[narg] = Rel(int16(immc))
			narg++

		case xArgRel32:
			inst.PCRelOff = immcpos
			inst.PCRel = 4
			inst.Args[narg] = Rel(int32(immc))
			narg++
		}
	}

	if inst.Op == 0 {
		// Invalid instruction.
		if nprefix > 0 {
			return instPrefix(src[0], mode) // invalid instruction
		}
		return Inst{Len: pos}, ErrUnrecognized
	}

	// Matched! Hooray!

	// 90 decodes as XCHG EAX, EAX but is NOP.
	// 66 90 decodes as XCHG AX, AX and is NOP too.
	// 48 90 decodes as XCHG RAX, RAX and is NOP too.
	// 43 90 decodes as XCHG R8D, EAX and is *not* NOP.
	// F3 90 decodes as REP XCHG EAX, EAX but is PAUSE.
	// It's all too special to handle in the decoding tables, at least for now.
	if inst.Op == XCHG && inst.Opcode>>24 == 0x90 {
		if inst.Args[0] == RAX || inst.Args[0] == EAX || inst.Args[0] == AX {
			inst.Op = NOP
			if dataSizeIndex >= 0 {
				inst.Prefix[dataSizeIndex] &^= PrefixImplicit
			}
			inst.Args[0] = nil
			inst.Args[1] = nil
		}
		if repIndex >= 0 && inst.Prefix[repIndex] == 0xF3 {
			inst.Prefix[repIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
			inst.Op = PAUSE
			inst.Args[0] = nil
			inst.Args[1] = nil
		} else if gnuCompat {
			for i := nprefix - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
				if inst.Prefix[i]&0xFF == 0xF3 {
					inst.Prefix[i] |= PrefixImplicit
					inst.Op = PAUSE
					inst.Args[0] = nil
					inst.Args[1] = nil
					break
				}
			}
		}
	}

	// defaultSeg returns the default segment for an implicit
	// memory reference: the final override if present, or else DS.
	defaultSeg := func() Reg {
		if segIndex >= 0 {
			inst.Prefix[segIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
			return prefixToSegment(inst.Prefix[segIndex])
		}
		return DS
	}

	// Add implicit arguments not present in the tables.
	// Normally we shy away from making implicit arguments explicit,
	// following the Intel manuals, but adding the arguments seems
	// the best way to express the effect of the segment override prefixes.
	// TODO(rsc): Perhaps add these to the tables and
	// create bytecode instructions for them.
	usedAddrSize := false
	switch inst.Op {
	case INSB, INSW, INSD:
		inst.Args[0] = Mem{Segment: ES, Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + DI - AX}
		inst.Args[1] = DX
		usedAddrSize = true

	case OUTSB, OUTSW, OUTSD:
		inst.Args[0] = DX
		inst.Args[1] = Mem{Segment: defaultSeg(), Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + SI - AX}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case MOVSB, MOVSW, MOVSD, MOVSQ:
		inst.Args[0] = Mem{Segment: ES, Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + DI - AX}
		inst.Args[1] = Mem{Segment: defaultSeg(), Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + SI - AX}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case CMPSB, CMPSW, CMPSD, CMPSQ:
		inst.Args[0] = Mem{Segment: defaultSeg(), Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + SI - AX}
		inst.Args[1] = Mem{Segment: ES, Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + DI - AX}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case LODSB, LODSW, LODSD, LODSQ:
		switch inst.Op {
		case LODSB:
			inst.Args[0] = AL
		case LODSW:
			inst.Args[0] = AX
		case LODSD:
			inst.Args[0] = EAX
		case LODSQ:
			inst.Args[0] = RAX
		}
		inst.Args[1] = Mem{Segment: defaultSeg(), Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + SI - AX}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case STOSB, STOSW, STOSD, STOSQ:
		inst.Args[0] = Mem{Segment: ES, Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + DI - AX}
		switch inst.Op {
		case STOSB:
			inst.Args[1] = AL
		case STOSW:
			inst.Args[1] = AX
		case STOSD:
			inst.Args[1] = EAX
		case STOSQ:
			inst.Args[1] = RAX
		}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case SCASB, SCASW, SCASD, SCASQ:
		inst.Args[1] = Mem{Segment: ES, Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + DI - AX}
		switch inst.Op {
		case SCASB:
			inst.Args[0] = AL
		case SCASW:
			inst.Args[0] = AX
		case SCASD:
			inst.Args[0] = EAX
		case SCASQ:
			inst.Args[0] = RAX
		}
		usedAddrSize = true

	case XLATB:
		inst.Args[0] = Mem{Segment: defaultSeg(), Base: baseRegForBits(addrMode) + BX - AX}
		usedAddrSize = true
	}

	// If we used the address size annotation to construct the
	// argument list, mark that prefix as implicit: it doesn't need
	// to be shown when printing the instruction.
	if haveMem || usedAddrSize {
		if addrSizeIndex >= 0 {
			inst.Prefix[addrSizeIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
		}
	}

	// Similarly, if there's some memory operand, the segment
	// will be shown there and doesn't need to be shown as an
	// explicit prefix.
	if haveMem {
		if segIndex >= 0 {
			inst.Prefix[segIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
		}
	}

	// Branch predict prefixes are overloaded segment prefixes,
	// since segment prefixes don't make sense on conditional jumps.
	// Rewrite final instance to prediction prefix.
	// The set of instructions to which the prefixes apply (other then the
	// Jcc conditional jumps) is not 100% clear from the manuals, but
	// the disassemblers seem to agree about the LOOP and JCXZ instructions,
	// so we'll follow along.
	// TODO(rsc): Perhaps this instruction class should be derived from the CSV.
	if isCondJmp[inst.Op] || isLoop[inst.Op] || inst.Op == JCXZ || inst.Op == JECXZ || inst.Op == JRCXZ {
	PredictLoop:
		for i := nprefix - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
			p := inst.Prefix[i]
			switch p & 0xFF {
			case PrefixCS:
				inst.Prefix[i] = PrefixPN
				break PredictLoop
			case PrefixDS:
				inst.Prefix[i] = PrefixPT
				break PredictLoop
			}
		}
	}

	// The BND prefix is part of the Intel Memory Protection Extensions (MPX).
	// A REPN applied to certain control transfers is a BND prefix to bound
	// the range of possible destinations. There's surprisingly little documentation
	// about this, so we just do what libopcodes and xed agree on.
	// In particular, it's unclear why a REPN applied to LOOP or JCXZ instructions
	// does not turn into a BND.
	// TODO(rsc): Perhaps this instruction class should be derived from the CSV.
	if isCondJmp[inst.Op] || inst.Op == JMP || inst.Op == CALL || inst.Op == RET {
		for i := nprefix - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
			p := inst.Prefix[i]
			if p&^PrefixIgnored == PrefixREPN {
				inst.Prefix[i] = PrefixBND
				break
			}
		}
	}

	// The LOCK prefix only applies to certain instructions, and then only
	// to instances of the instruction with a memory destination.
	// Other uses of LOCK are invalid and cause a processor exception,
	// in contrast to the "just ignore it" spirit applied to all other prefixes.
	// Mark invalid lock prefixes.
	hasLock := false
	if lockIndex >= 0 && inst.Prefix[lockIndex]&PrefixImplicit == 0 {
		switch inst.Op {
		// TODO(rsc): Perhaps this instruction class should be derived from the CSV.
		case ADD, ADC, AND, BTC, BTR, BTS, CMPXCHG, CMPXCHG8B, CMPXCHG16B, DEC, INC, NEG, NOT, OR, SBB, SUB, XOR, XADD, XCHG:
			if isMem(inst.Args[0]) {
				hasLock = true
				break
			}
			fallthrough
		default:
			inst.Prefix[lockIndex] |= PrefixInvalid
		}
	}

	// In certain cases, all of which require a memory destination,
	// the REPN and REP prefixes are interpreted as XACQUIRE and XRELEASE
	// from the Intel Transactional Synchroniation Extensions (TSX).
	//
	// The specific rules are:
	// (1) Any instruction with a valid LOCK prefix can have XACQUIRE or XRELEASE.
	// (2) Any XCHG, which always has an implicit LOCK, can have XACQUIRE or XRELEASE.
	// (3) Any 0x88-, 0x89-, 0xC6-, or 0xC7-opcode MOV can have XRELEASE.
	if isMem(inst.Args[0]) {
		if inst.Op == XCHG {
			hasLock = true
		}

		for i := len(inst.Prefix) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
			p := inst.Prefix[i] &^ PrefixIgnored
			switch p {
			case PrefixREPN:
				if hasLock {
					inst.Prefix[i] = inst.Prefix[i]&PrefixIgnored | PrefixXACQUIRE
				}

			case PrefixREP:
				if hasLock {
					inst.Prefix[i] = inst.Prefix[i]&PrefixIgnored | PrefixXRELEASE
				}

				if inst.Op == MOV {
					op := (inst.Opcode >> 24) &^ 1
					if op == 0x88 || op == 0xC6 {
						inst.Prefix[i] = inst.Prefix[i]&PrefixIgnored | PrefixXRELEASE
					}
				}
			}
		}
	}

	// If REP is used on a non-REP-able instruction, mark the prefix as ignored.
	if repIndex >= 0 {
		switch inst.Prefix[repIndex] {
		case PrefixREP, PrefixREPN:
			switch inst.Op {
			// According to the manuals, the REP/REPE prefix applies to all of these,
			// while the REPN applies only to some of them. However, both libopcodes
			// and xed show both prefixes explicitly for all instructions, so we do the same.
			// TODO(rsc): Perhaps this instruction class should be derived from the CSV.
			case INSB, INSW, INSD,
				MOVSB, MOVSW, MOVSD, MOVSQ,
				OUTSB, OUTSW, OUTSD,
				LODSB, LODSW, LODSD, LODSQ,
				CMPSB, CMPSW, CMPSD, CMPSQ,
				SCASB, SCASW, SCASD, SCASQ,
				STOSB, STOSW, STOSD, STOSQ:
				// ok
			default:
				inst.Prefix[repIndex] |= PrefixIgnored
			}
		}
	}

	// If REX was present, mark implicit if all the 1 bits were consumed.
	if rexIndex >= 0 {
		if rexUsed != 0 {
			rexUsed |= PrefixREX
		}
		if rex&^rexUsed == 0 {
			inst.Prefix[rexIndex] |= PrefixImplicit
		}
	}

	inst.DataSize = dataMode
	inst.AddrSize = addrMode
	inst.Mode = mode
	inst.Len = pos
	return inst, nil
}

var errInternal = errors.New("internal error")

// addr16 records the eight 16-bit addressing modes.
var addr16 = [8]Mem{
	{Base: BX, Scale: 1, Index: SI},
	{Base: BX, Scale: 1, Index: DI},
	{Base: BP, Scale: 1, Index: SI},
	{Base: BP, Scale: 1, Index: DI},
	{Base: SI},
	{Base: DI},
	{Base: BP},
	{Base: BX},
}

// baseReg returns the base register for a given register size in bits.
func baseRegForBits(bits int) Reg {
	switch bits {
	case 8:
		return AL
	case 16:
		return AX
	case 32:
		return EAX
	case 64:
		return RAX
	}
	return 0
}

// baseReg records the base register for argument types that specify
// a range of registers indexed by op, regop, or rm.
var baseReg = [...]Reg{
	xArgDR0dashDR7: DR0,
	xArgMm1:        M0,
	xArgMm2:        M0,
	xArgMm2M64:     M0,
	xArgMm:         M0,
	xArgMmM32:      M0,
	xArgMmM64:      M0,
	xArgR16:        AX,
	xArgR16op:      AX,
	xArgR32:        EAX,
	xArgR32M16:     EAX,
	xArgR32M8:      EAX,
	xArgR32op:      EAX,
	xArgR64:        RAX,
	xArgR64M16:     RAX,
	xArgR64op:      RAX,
	xArgR8:         AL,
	xArgR8op:       AL,
	xArgRM16:       AX,
	xArgRM32:       EAX,
	xArgRM64:       RAX,
	xArgRM8:        AL,
	xArgRmf16:      AX,
	xArgRmf32:      EAX,
	xArgRmf64:      RAX,
	xArgSTi:        F0,
	xArgTR0dashTR7: TR0,
	xArgXmm1:       X0,
	xArgYmm1:       X0,
	xArgXmm2:       X0,
	xArgXmm2M128:   X0,
	xArgYmm2M256:   X0,
	xArgXmm2M16:    X0,
	xArgXmm2M32:    X0,
	xArgXmm2M64:    X0,
	xArgXmm:        X0,
	xArgXmmM128:    X0,
	xArgXmmM32:     X0,
	xArgXmmM64:     X0,
}

// prefixToSegment returns the segment register
// corresponding to a particular segment prefix.
func prefixToSegment(p Prefix) Reg {
	switch p &^ PrefixImplicit {
	case PrefixCS:
		return CS
	case PrefixDS:
		return DS
	case PrefixES:
		return ES
	case PrefixFS:
		return FS
	case PrefixGS:
		return GS
	case PrefixSS:
		return SS
	}
	return 0
}

// fixedArg records the fixed arguments corresponding to the given bytecodes.
var fixedArg = [...]Arg{
	xArg1:    Imm(1),
	xArg3:    Imm(3),
	xArgAL:   AL,
	xArgAX:   AX,
	xArgDX:   DX,
	xArgEAX:  EAX,
	xArgEDX:  EDX,
	xArgRAX:  RAX,
	xArgRDX:  RDX,
	xArgCL:   CL,
	xArgCS:   CS,
	xArgDS:   DS,
	xArgES:   ES,
	xArgFS:   FS,
	xArgGS:   GS,
	xArgSS:   SS,
	xArgST:   F0,
	xArgXMM0: X0,
}

// memBytes records the size of the memory pointed at
// by a memory argument of the given form.
var memBytes = [...]int8{
	xArgM128:       128 / 8,
	xArgM256:       256 / 8,
	xArgM16:        16 / 8,
	xArgM16and16:   (16 + 16) / 8,
	xArgM16colon16: (16 + 16) / 8,
	xArgM16colon32: (16 + 32) / 8,
	xArgM16int:     16 / 8,
	xArgM2byte:     2,
	xArgM32:        32 / 8,
	xArgM32and32:   (32 + 32) / 8,
	xArgM32fp:      32 / 8,
	xArgM32int:     32 / 8,
	xArgM64:        64 / 8,
	xArgM64fp:      64 / 8,
	xArgM64int:     64 / 8,
	xArgMm2M64:     64 / 8,
	xArgMmM32:      32 / 8,
	xArgMmM64:      64 / 8,
	xArgMoffs16:    16 / 8,
	xArgMoffs32:    32 / 8,
	xArgMoffs64:    64 / 8,
	xArgMoffs8:     8 / 8,
	xArgR32M16:     16 / 8,
	xArgR32M8:      8 / 8,
	xArgR64M16:     16 / 8,
	xArgRM16:       16 / 8,
	xArgRM32:       32 / 8,
	xArgRM64:       64 / 8,
	xArgRM8:        8 / 8,
	xArgXmm2M128:   128 / 8,
	xArgYmm2M256:   256 / 8,
	xArgXmm2M16:    16 / 8,
	xArgXmm2M32:    32 / 8,
	xArgXmm2M64:    64 / 8,
	xArgXmm:        128 / 8,
	xArgXmmM128:    128 / 8,
	xArgXmmM32:     32 / 8,
	xArgXmmM64:     64 / 8,
}

// isCondJmp records the conditional jumps.
var isCondJmp = [maxOp + 1]bool{
	JA:  true,
	JAE: true,
	JB:  true,
	JBE: true,
	JE:  true,
	JG:  true,
	JGE: true,
	JL:  true,
	JLE: true,
	JNE: true,
	JNO: true,
	JNP: true,
	JNS: true,
	JO:  true,
	JP:  true,
	JS:  true,
}

// isLoop records the loop operators.
var isLoop = [maxOp + 1]bool{
	LOOP:   true,
	LOOPE:  true,
	LOOPNE: true,
	JECXZ:  true,
	JRCXZ:  true,
}

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