greenplumn sampling 源码

  • 2022-08-18
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greenplumn sampling 代码

文件路径:/src/backend/utils/misc/sampling.c

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * sampling.c
 *	  Relation block sampling routines.
 *
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2019, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
 *
 *
 * IDENTIFICATION
 *	  src/backend/utils/misc/sampling.c
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

#include "postgres.h"

#include <math.h>

#include "utils/sampling.h"


/*
 * BlockSampler_Init -- prepare for random sampling of blocknumbers
 *
 * BlockSampler provides algorithm for block level sampling of a relation
 * as discussed on pgsql-hackers 2004-04-02 (subject "Large DB")
 * It selects a random sample of samplesize blocks out of
 * the nblocks blocks in the table. If the table has less than
 * samplesize blocks, all blocks are selected.
 *
 * Since we know the total number of blocks in advance, we can use the
 * straightforward Algorithm S from Knuth 3.4.2, rather than Vitter's
 * algorithm.
 */
void
BlockSampler_Init(BlockSampler bs, BlockNumber nblocks, int samplesize,
				  long randseed)
{
	bs->N = nblocks;			/* measured table size */

	/*
	 * If we decide to reduce samplesize for tables that have less or not much
	 * more than samplesize blocks, here is the place to do it.
	 */
	bs->n = samplesize;
	bs->t = 0;					/* blocks scanned so far */
	bs->m = 0;					/* blocks selected so far */

	sampler_random_init_state(randseed, bs->randstate);
}

bool
BlockSampler_HasMore(BlockSampler bs)
{
	return (bs->t < bs->N) && (bs->m < bs->n);
}

BlockNumber
BlockSampler_Next(BlockSampler bs)
{
	BlockNumber K = bs->N - bs->t;	/* remaining blocks */
	int			k = bs->n - bs->m;	/* blocks still to sample */
	double		p;				/* probability to skip block */
	double		V;				/* random */

	Assert(BlockSampler_HasMore(bs));	/* hence K > 0 and k > 0 */

	if ((BlockNumber) k >= K)
	{
		/* need all the rest */
		bs->m++;
		return bs->t++;
	}

	/*----------
	 * It is not obvious that this code matches Knuth's Algorithm S.
	 * Knuth says to skip the current block with probability 1 - k/K.
	 * If we are to skip, we should advance t (hence decrease K), and
	 * repeat the same probabilistic test for the next block.  The naive
	 * implementation thus requires a sampler_random_fract() call for each
	 * block number.  But we can reduce this to one sampler_random_fract()
	 * call per selected block, by noting that each time the while-test
	 * succeeds, we can reinterpret V as a uniform random number in the range
	 * 0 to p. Therefore, instead of choosing a new V, we just adjust p to be
	 * the appropriate fraction of its former value, and our next loop
	 * makes the appropriate probabilistic test.
	 *
	 * We have initially K > k > 0.  If the loop reduces K to equal k,
	 * the next while-test must fail since p will become exactly zero
	 * (we assume there will not be roundoff error in the division).
	 * (Note: Knuth suggests a "<=" loop condition, but we use "<" just
	 * to be doubly sure about roundoff error.)  Therefore K cannot become
	 * less than k, which means that we cannot fail to select enough blocks.
	 *----------
	 */
	V = sampler_random_fract(bs->randstate);
	p = 1.0 - (double) k / (double) K;
	while (V < p)
	{
		/* skip */
		bs->t++;
		K--;					/* keep K == N - t */

		/* adjust p to be new cutoff point in reduced range */
		p *= 1.0 - (double) k / (double) K;
	}

	/* select */
	bs->m++;
	return bs->t++;
}

/*
 * These two routines embody Algorithm Z from "Random sampling with a
 * reservoir" by Jeffrey S. Vitter, in ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 11, 1
 * (Mar. 1985), Pages 37-57.  Vitter describes his algorithm in terms
 * of the count S of records to skip before processing another record.
 * It is computed primarily based on t, the number of records already read.
 * The only extra state needed between calls is W, a random state variable.
 *
 * reservoir_init_selection_state computes the initial W value.
 *
 * Given that we've already read t records (t >= n), reservoir_get_next_S
 * determines the number of records to skip before the next record is
 * processed.
 */
void
reservoir_init_selection_state(ReservoirState rs, int n)
{
	/*
	 * Reservoir sampling is not used anywhere where it would need to return
	 * repeatable results so we can initialize it randomly.
	 */
	sampler_random_init_state(random(), rs->randstate);

	/* Initial value of W (for use when Algorithm Z is first applied) */
	rs->W = exp(-log(sampler_random_fract(rs->randstate)) / n);
}

double
reservoir_get_next_S(ReservoirState rs, double t, int n)
{
	double		S;

	/* The magic constant here is T from Vitter's paper */
	if (t <= (22.0 * n))
	{
		/* Process records using Algorithm X until t is large enough */
		double		V,
					quot;

		V = sampler_random_fract(rs->randstate);	/* Generate V */
		S = 0;
		t += 1;
		/* Note: "num" in Vitter's code is always equal to t - n */
		quot = (t - (double) n) / t;
		/* Find min S satisfying (4.1) */
		while (quot > V)
		{
			S += 1;
			t += 1;
			quot *= (t - (double) n) / t;
		}
	}
	else
	{
		/* Now apply Algorithm Z */
		double		W = rs->W;
		double		term = t - (double) n + 1;

		for (;;)
		{
			double		numer,
						numer_lim,
						denom;
			double		U,
						X,
						lhs,
						rhs,
						y,
						tmp;

			/* Generate U and X */
			U = sampler_random_fract(rs->randstate);
			X = t * (W - 1.0);
			S = floor(X);		/* S is tentatively set to floor(X) */
			/* Test if U <= h(S)/cg(X) in the manner of (6.3) */
			tmp = (t + 1) / term;
			lhs = exp(log(((U * tmp * tmp) * (term + S)) / (t + X)) / n);
			rhs = (((t + X) / (term + S)) * term) / t;
			if (lhs <= rhs)
			{
				W = rhs / lhs;
				break;
			}
			/* Test if U <= f(S)/cg(X) */
			y = (((U * (t + 1)) / term) * (t + S + 1)) / (t + X);
			if ((double) n < S)
			{
				denom = t;
				numer_lim = term + S;
			}
			else
			{
				denom = t - (double) n + S;
				numer_lim = t + 1;
			}
			for (numer = t + S; numer >= numer_lim; numer -= 1)
			{
				y *= numer / denom;
				denom -= 1;
			}
			W = exp(-log(sampler_random_fract(rs->randstate)) / n); /* Generate W in advance */
			if (exp(log(y) / n) <= (t + X) / t)
				break;
		}
		rs->W = W;
	}
	return S;
}


/*----------
 * Random number generator used by sampling
 *----------
 */
void
sampler_random_init_state(long seed, SamplerRandomState randstate)
{
	randstate[0] = 0x330e;		/* same as pg_erand48, but could be anything */
	randstate[1] = (unsigned short) seed;
	randstate[2] = (unsigned short) (seed >> 16);
}

/* Select a random value R uniformly distributed in (0 - 1) */
double
sampler_random_fract(SamplerRandomState randstate)
{
	double		res;

	/* pg_erand48 returns a value in [0.0 - 1.0), so we must reject 0 */
	do
	{
		res = pg_erand48(randstate);
	} while (res == 0.0);
	return res;
}


/*
 * Backwards-compatible API for block sampling
 *
 * This code is now deprecated, but since it's still in use by many FDWs,
 * we should keep it for awhile at least.  The functionality is the same as
 * sampler_random_fract/reservoir_init_selection_state/reservoir_get_next_S,
 * except that a common random state is used across all callers.
 */
static ReservoirStateData oldrs;

double
anl_random_fract(void)
{
	/* initialize if first time through */
	if (oldrs.randstate[0] == 0)
		sampler_random_init_state(random(), oldrs.randstate);

	/* and compute a random fraction */
	return sampler_random_fract(oldrs.randstate);
}

double
anl_init_selection_state(int n)
{
	/* initialize if first time through */
	if (oldrs.randstate[0] == 0)
		sampler_random_init_state(random(), oldrs.randstate);

	/* Initial value of W (for use when Algorithm Z is first applied) */
	return exp(-log(sampler_random_fract(oldrs.randstate)) / n);
}

double
anl_get_next_S(double t, int n, double *stateptr)
{
	double		result;

	oldrs.W = *stateptr;
	result = reservoir_get_next_S(&oldrs, t, n);
	*stateptr = oldrs.W;
	return result;
}

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