java optional

  • 2019-02-21
  • 浏览 (58)

Java8 增加了一些很有用的 API, 其中一个就是 Optional。它可以优雅的解决 NullPointException 的问题。它的源码比较简单,可以通过阅读源码理解它的使用方式。

Optional 源码
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2012, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 */
package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Function;
import java.util.function.Predicate;
import java.util.function.Supplier;

/**
 * A container object which may or may not contain a non-null value.
 * If a value is present, {@code isPresent()} will return {@code true} and
 * {@code get()} will return the value.
 *
 * <p>Additional methods that depend on the presence or absence of a contained
 * value are provided, such as {@link #orElse(java.lang.Object) orElse()}
 * (return a default value if value not present) and
 * {@link #ifPresent(java.util.function.Consumer) ifPresent()} (execute a block
 * of code if the value is present).
 *
 * <p>This is a <a href="../lang/doc-files/ValueBased.html">value-based</a>
 * class; use of identity-sensitive operations (including reference equality
 * ({@code ==}), identity hash code, or synchronization) on instances of
 * {@code Optional} may have unpredictable results and should be avoided.
 *
 * @since 1.8
 */
public final class Optional<T> {
    /**
     * Common instance for {@code empty()}.
     */
    private static final Optional<?> EMPTY = new Optional<>();

    /**
     * If non-null, the value; if null, indicates no value is present
     */
    private final T value;

    /**
     * Constructs an empty instance.
     *
     * @implNote Generally only one empty instance, {@link Optional#EMPTY},
     * should exist per VM.
     */
    private Optional() {
        this.value = null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns an empty {@code Optional} instance.  No value is present for this
     * Optional.
     *
     * @apiNote Though it may be tempting to do so, avoid testing if an object
     * is empty by comparing with {@code ==} against instances returned by
     * {@code Option.empty()}. There is no guarantee that it is a singleton.
     * Instead, use {@link #isPresent()}.
     *
     * @param <T> Type of the non-existent value
     * @return an empty {@code Optional}
     */
    public static<T> Optional<T> empty() {
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Optional<T> t = (Optional<T>) EMPTY;
        return t;
    }

    /**
     * Constructs an instance with the value present.
     *
     * @param value the non-null value to be present
     * @throws NullPointerException if value is null
     */
    private Optional(T value) {
        this.value = Objects.requireNonNull(value);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an {@code Optional} with the specified present non-null value.
     *
     * @param <T> the class of the value
     * @param value the value to be present, which must be non-null
     * @return an {@code Optional} with the value present
     * @throws NullPointerException if value is null
     */
    public static <T> Optional<T> of(T value) {
        return new Optional<>(value);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an {@code Optional} describing the specified value, if non-null,
     * otherwise returns an empty {@code Optional}.
     *
     * @param <T> the class of the value
     * @param value the possibly-null value to describe
     * @return an {@code Optional} with a present value if the specified value
     * is non-null, otherwise an empty {@code Optional}
     */
    public static <T> Optional<T> ofNullable(T value) {
        return value == null ? empty() : of(value);
    }

    /**
     * If a value is present in this {@code Optional}, returns the value,
     * otherwise throws {@code NoSuchElementException}.
     *
     * @return the non-null value held by this {@code Optional}
     * @throws NoSuchElementException if there is no value present
     *
     * @see Optional#isPresent()
     */
    public T get() {
        if (value == null) {
            throw new NoSuchElementException("No value present");
        }
        return value;
    }

    /**
     * Return {@code true} if there is a value present, otherwise {@code false}.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if there is a value present, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    public boolean isPresent() {
        return value != null;
    }

    /**
     * If a value is present, invoke the specified consumer with the value,
     * otherwise do nothing.
     *
     * @param consumer block to be executed if a value is present
     * @throws NullPointerException if value is present and {@code consumer} is
     * null
     */
    public void ifPresent(Consumer<? super T> consumer) {
        if (value != null)
            consumer.accept(value);
    }

    /**
     * If a value is present, and the value matches the given predicate,
     * return an {@code Optional} describing the value, otherwise return an
     * empty {@code Optional}.
     *
     * @param predicate a predicate to apply to the value, if present
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the value of this {@code Optional}
     * if a value is present and the value matches the given predicate,
     * otherwise an empty {@code Optional}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the predicate is null
     */
    public Optional<T> filter(Predicate<? super T> predicate) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(predicate);
        if (!isPresent())
            return this;
        else
            return predicate.test(value) ? this : empty();
    }

    /**
     * If a value is present, apply the provided mapping function to it,
     * and if the result is non-null, return an {@code Optional} describing the
     * result.  Otherwise return an empty {@code Optional}.
     *
     * @apiNote This method supports post-processing on optional values, without
     * the need to explicitly check for a return status.  For example, the
     * following code traverses a stream of file names, selects one that has
     * not yet been processed, and then opens that file, returning an
     * {@code Optional<FileInputStream>}:
     *
     * <pre>{@code
     *     Optional<FileInputStream> fis =
     *         names.stream().filter(name -> !isProcessedYet(name))
     *                       .findFirst()
     *                       .map(name -> new FileInputStream(name));
     * }</pre>
     *
     * Here, {@code findFirst} returns an {@code Optional<String>}, and then
     * {@code map} returns an {@code Optional<FileInputStream>} for the desired
     * file if one exists.
     *
     * @param <U> The type of the result of the mapping function
     * @param mapper a mapping function to apply to the value, if present
     * @return an {@code Optional} describing the result of applying a mapping
     * function to the value of this {@code Optional}, if a value is present,
     * otherwise an empty {@code Optional}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the mapping function is null
     */
    public<U> Optional<U> map(Function<? super T, ? extends U> mapper) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(mapper);
        if (!isPresent())
            return empty();
        else {
            return Optional.ofNullable(mapper.apply(value));
        }
    }

    /**
     * If a value is present, apply the provided {@code Optional}-bearing
     * mapping function to it, return that result, otherwise return an empty
     * {@code Optional}.  This method is similar to {@link #map(Function)},
     * but the provided mapper is one whose result is already an {@code Optional},
     * and if invoked, {@code flatMap} does not wrap it with an additional
     * {@code Optional}.
     *
     * @param <U> The type parameter to the {@code Optional} returned by
     * @param mapper a mapping function to apply to the value, if present
     *           the mapping function
     * @return the result of applying an {@code Optional}-bearing mapping
     * function to the value of this {@code Optional}, if a value is present,
     * otherwise an empty {@code Optional}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the mapping function is null or returns
     * a null result
     */
    public<U> Optional<U> flatMap(Function<? super T, Optional<U>> mapper) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(mapper);
        if (!isPresent())
            return empty();
        else {
            return Objects.requireNonNull(mapper.apply(value));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return the value if present, otherwise return {@code other}.
     *
     * @param other the value to be returned if there is no value present, may
     * be null
     * @return the value, if present, otherwise {@code other}
     */
    public T orElse(T other) {
        return value != null ? value : other;
    }

    /**
     * Return the value if present, otherwise invoke {@code other} and return
     * the result of that invocation.
     *
     * @param other a {@code Supplier} whose result is returned if no value
     * is present
     * @return the value if present otherwise the result of {@code other.get()}
     * @throws NullPointerException if value is not present and {@code other} is
     * null
     */
    public T orElseGet(Supplier<? extends T> other) {
        return value != null ? value : other.get();
    }

    /**
     * Return the contained value, if present, otherwise throw an exception
     * to be created by the provided supplier.
     *
     * @apiNote A method reference to the exception constructor with an empty
     * argument list can be used as the supplier. For example,
     * {@code IllegalStateException::new}
     *
     * @param <X> Type of the exception to be thrown
     * @param exceptionSupplier The supplier which will return the exception to
     * be thrown
     * @return the present value
     * @throws X if there is no value present
     * @throws NullPointerException if no value is present and
     * {@code exceptionSupplier} is null
     */
    public <X extends Throwable> T orElseThrow(Supplier<? extends X> exceptionSupplier) throws X {
        if (value != null) {
            return value;
        } else {
            throw exceptionSupplier.get();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Indicates whether some other object is "equal to" this Optional. The
     * other object is considered equal if:
     * <ul>
     * <li>it is also an {@code Optional} and;
     * <li>both instances have no value present or;
     * <li>the present values are "equal to" each other via {@code equals()}.
     * </ul>
     *
     * @param obj an object to be tested for equality
     * @return {code true} if the other object is "equal to" this object
     * otherwise {@code false}
     */
    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
        if (this == obj) {
            return true;
        }

        if (!(obj instanceof Optional)) {
            return false;
        }

        Optional<?> other = (Optional<?>) obj;
        return Objects.equals(value, other.value);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the hash code value of the present value, if any, or 0 (zero) if
     * no value is present.
     *
     * @return hash code value of the present value or 0 if no value is present
     */
    @Override
    public int hashCode() {
        return Objects.hashCode(value);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a non-empty string representation of this Optional suitable for
     * debugging. The exact presentation format is unspecified and may vary
     * between implementations and versions.
     *
     * @implSpec If a value is present the result must include its string
     * representation in the result. Empty and present Optionals must be
     * unambiguously differentiable.
     *
     * @return the string representation of this instance
     */
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return value != null
            ? String.format("Optional[%s]", value)
            : "Optional.empty";
    }
}

使用例子

1. 存在即返回, 无则提供默认值
Optional<User> user = ……    //后面的user也是这种声明方式
return user.orElse(null);  //而不是 return user.isPresent() ? user.get() : null;
2. 存在即返回, 无则由函数来产生
return user.orElseGet(() -> fetchAUserFromDatabase()); //而不要 return user.isPresent() ? user: fetchAUserFromDatabase();
3. 存在才对它做点什么
user.ifPresent(System.out::println);
//而不要下边那样
if (user.isPresent()) {
  System.out.println(user.get());
}
4. map函数
当 user.isPresent() 为真, 获得它关联的 orders, 为假则返回一个空集合时, 我们用上面的 orElse, orElseGet 方法都乏力时, 那原本就是 map 函数的责任, 我们可以这样一行
return user.map(u -> u.getOrders()).orElse(Collections.emptyList())

//上面避免了我们类似 Java 8 之前的做法
if(user.isPresent()) {
  return user.get().getOrders();
} else {
  return Collections.emptyList();
}
map  是可能无限级联的, 比如再深一层, 获得用户名的大写形式
return user.map(u -> u.getUsername())
           .map(name -> name.toUpperCase())
           .orElse(null);           
这要搁在以前, 每一级调用的展开都需要放一个 null 值的判断
User user = .....
if(user != null) {
  String name = user.getUsername();
  if(name != null) {
    return name.toUpperCase();
  } else {
    return null;
  }
} else {
  return null;
}
总结
使用 Optional 时尽量不直接调用 Optional.get() 方法, Optional.isPresent() 更应该被视为一个私有方法, 应依赖于其他像 Optional.orElse(), Optional.orElseGet(), Optional.map() 等这样的方法,因为这些方法都是先调用 isPresent() 进行判断, 真时处理值, 假时什么也不做。

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